"Urine" isn't a word that comes up a lot when people are discussing alternative or renewable energy sources. In fact, it's not a word that tends to come up a lot no matter what is being discussed. But in a lonely Army Research Lab at the unheralded Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland military researchers have apparently found a way to make urine relevant to the quest for energy efficiency and sustainability.
The whole thing came about like many scientific breakthroughs do, quite by accident. This particular tidbit of serendipity began with the drive to develop a new high-strength alloy. The nano-galvanic aluminum-based powder that was produced as part of this quest was at one point exposed to water and started bubbling. But more importantly, it began to emit pure hydrogen. That's not a normal reaction for aluminum, which most of the time oxidizes quickly when it comes into contact with water. Researchers understood the implications of this reaction almost as soon as it occurred, however. They had possibly eliminated one of the major roadblocks to making hydrogen power a practical reality; the need to transport and store it.
You see, although hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe it has always made a poor power source because it is very bulky and difficult to transport. Not only that but the extraction process has always been a fiendishly difficult, inefficient and slow one. Now, however, that difficult extraction process may well be a thing of the past. But the real kicker here, and the reason for this story is that the army researchers discovered that if they added urine to their nano-galvanic aluminum-based powder the production of hydrogen occurred twice as fast as it did with water.
One of the biggest concerns of those tasked with making sure soldiers are prepared for remote field ops is finding or providing an abundant fuel source for them. With so many of today's high tech communication and support devices requiring electric power (and with the ability to resupply remote teams an iffy proposition at best), it has often come down to burdening these already overworked foot soldiers with ever greater numbers of batteries. With this new process, however, just a single kilogram of nano-galvanic aluminum-based powder mixed with urine can generate 220 kilowatts of electricity in a scant 3 minutes. This energy can then be stored in fuel cells where it can be called upon by those soldiers wherever and whenever they need it.
The powder could potentially be "painted" onto the side of combat or patrol vehicles. Should the occupants of the vehicles require power, all they'd have to do is get the vehicle wet by dipping it in a stream or peeing on it to generate the power they'd need. 3D printers could utilize the powder to fashion drone parts. Should a surveillance drone find itself running low on power, the operator could simply direct it to a water source where it would, in effect, cannibalize itself to generate more power. If processes currently being explored are perfected soldiers could even generate power by using aluminum cans, they find discarded by the side of the road along with their own urine to generate electricity. The possibilities are staggering when one thinks about it and could potentially cut down on military fatalities in war zones where so many soldiers are killed during fuel resupply missions.
It's not a perfect energy solution for everyone operating in remote or hostile environments, however. For instance, the process would have little applicability for astronauts, whose power needs are great but who are forced to preserve and recycle both water and urine since obtaining more drinking water in the depths of space is an impossibility. But in spite of the fact that the process has its practical limitations research into refining the reaction kinetics continues apace.
The unknown in this entire equation is why the production of hydrogen increases so significantly when urine, instead of water, is mixed with the nano-powder. Theories as to the cause are plentiful and run the gamut from the presence of electrolytes to the natural acidity of urine. And while trying to figure out why the process happens the way it does may seem a bit like looking a gift horse in the mouth, the fact is that researchers won’t be able to truly perfect the process unless they know exactly why it’s happening in the first place. Once they understand that they may be able to utilize other fluids such as saliva to generate power in the field where none would otherwise be available.
Today the team at Aberdeen Proving Ground are busy patenting their discovery. Once that has happened they’ll turn their full attention back to finding out exactly what is behind the more efficient production of hydrogen using urine and how the whole process can be scaled up and made available to those who need it.
As we move forward, it's obvious that this discovery will have wide-ranging implications outside the military sphere as well. Automobile companies, for instance, have long been searching for a practical way to produce hydrogen powered cars but until now the process has simply been too cumbersome and impractical. There is a very real possibility this new process could change all that and be the first and most important step yet taken in finally replacing the worlds’ 1 billion fossil fuel powered vehicles.
Research into the practical applications of this invention is still in its infancy but few discoveries in recent years have generated so much buzz among those looking for sustainable solutions for the world’s vexing energy problems. It’s conceivable that, because of this invention, shortly we’ll be driving hydrogen-powered cars and that, on a far-flung battlefield somewhere, a soldier in desperate need of power will generate electricity using found aluminum cans and pee.
There is a ton of confusing, often misleading information out there today regarding urea and uric acid. Most of it goes something like this: "Urea and uric acid are two names for the same thing" or "Our synthetic urine product contains uric acid, the only thing you'll need to ensure you get a positive result on your next test." That all sounds very well and good, but the fact is that neither statement is true. Many labs these days don't test for uric acid and the ones that do only use it as a kind of fallback position because urea can be notoriously fickle and dissipate so quickly that it's hard to detect. Which leads to the first point; that urea and uric acid are the same things. They're not. And below we’ll discuss the difference.
People who are either misinformed or trying to angle you toward selecting their product that contains only uric acid will often say that urea and uric acid are the same things. That, in essence, they are two sides of the same coin. This is not true.
A better analogy would be that they are like carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Both of those things result from the burning of fossil fuels and can be found in car exhaust, yet they are fundamentally different compounds. Both urea and uric acid result from metabolic processes and can be found in urine. They are not chemically the same and are not regarded as being interchangeable by the people who conduct drug tests.
Before we go any further, let's take a more or less scientific look at these two compounds, what they are and how they are both similar and very different. ("More or less" because we're going to eliminate most of the scientific jargon.)
Let’s see if we can clarify this issue for you a bit more thoroughly by taking things point by point.
It's essential that anyone in search of a synthetic urine product make sure that the product contains both uric acid and urea. Any synthetic urine sample that does not contain urea runs the genuine risk of being deemed non-human, which means a failed drug test and botched career.
In an attempt to get ahead of the curve on a burgeoning public health crisis officials in Jackson, Mississippi have issued a dire warning about the dangers of synthetic marijuana. While the designer drug has not as of yet turned up in the city, civic leaders believe it is only a matter of time and are attempting to get the word out before anyone falls victim to this latest example of cutthroat entrepreneurship.
The product being marketed in clubs, on college campuses and on street corners these days as "synthetic marijuana" may contain some actual synthetic cannabinoids (THC, the compound in marijuana that produces the high) or it may not. In either case, it presents a significant health hazard to those foolhardy enough to use it. Often sold under the name "spice" first came to the attention of public health officials over a decade ago when people began showing up in emergency rooms in places like New York City suffering from a variety of maladies they ascribed to smoking pot. Since then the drug has steadily gained in popularity mostly because it promises an incredible high for a fraction of the cost of real marijuana.
The active ingredient in it, (the aforementioned synthetic THC) was actually created in the laboratory more than 2 decades ago by a chemist with a lot of time on his hands and nothing much better to do. He synthesized the fake THC, published a paper on it, made the ‘recipe’ available to anyone who wanted it and went back about his business. Not much happened until after the turn of the century when some enterprising dealers decided they would put the free recipe to good use and create a bargain basement alternative to natural weed.
The problem with synthetic weed is essentially two-fold. On the one hand, the "real" fake THC is up to 85 times more potent than the THC that's found in actual marijuana. This incredible potency has a habit of overwhelming the unsuspecting who wind up little more than jibbering, agitated zombies who then make their way to emergency rooms to find help.
The other aspect of the problem involves those unscrupulous lowlifes who, in search of a quick buck, sprinkle rat poison onto any old type of crushed, dried leaf and sell it as synthetic marijuana. The people who fall for this ruse often wind up bleeding from the nose and eyes, vomiting blood and finding blood in their urine and stools. In more than a few cases such unfortunates have died as a result of being poisoned in this fashion.
Because the fake synthetic weed is typically produced in large batches and sold throughout towns and city neighborhoods in a short period of time cases of poisoning tend to involve large numbers of people. A recent case in Brooklyn, for instance, saw 25 people from the same neighborhood hospitalized in a single evening. Another case in Chicago saw more than 100 people wind up in the hospital at roughly the same time with 4 of them dying from the effects of the poison. And the list goes on and on. This is why officials in Jackson have decided to get out in front of the issue and try to prevent a health crisis by warning anyone who will listen to the dangers of synthetic weed.
Because most of the large scale incidents involving synthetic marijuana have occurred in urban areas, the discourse has until recently tended to focus on it being a kind of poor person's problem. But a couple of other high profile cases have served notice that synthetic marijuana is a problem we all need to be aware of.
In October of 2015 Derrick Coleman, a fullback on the Seattle Seahawks football team was involved in a hit and run accident during which another driver was injured. Coleman emerged from his vehicle after the collision appearing "aggravated, delirious and incoherent" according to a number of witnesses. He then fled the scene barefoot without calling the police or otherwise reporting the incident. When police arrived, they searched his vehicle and found a packet of "spice" and other drug paraphernalia. Coleman was eventually tracked down and later plead guilty to a number of charges. This highly regarded, highly paid professional athlete with no history of trouble was promptly dumped by the Seahawks and hasn't played in the NFL since.
A year later in 2016 Chandler Jones - another first string, NFL all-star who played for the Champion New England Patriots - walked into a police station near his home partially dressed and disoriented in the middle of the night and asked for medical assistance. Police summoned paramedics who performed what they characterized as “advanced life support” on Jones. His home was subsequently searched and synthetic marijuana found. Jones was traded by the Patriots a few months later as a direct result of the incident.
Synthetic marijuana presents a vexing problem for law enforcement because of the synthesized nature of its active ingredient. As soon as the chemicals involved are moved to the list of controlled substances, enterprising chemists simply tweak the mix and introduce a new variant that is not illegal. When that too gets moved to the list of controlled substances another new, legal variant is created and so on. As a result about the only approach that makes sense is to do what the officials in Jackson have done, and that's to try to educate people about the dangers before it's too late.
While it's not likely to bring a complete end to the problem the public service announcement strategy may dissuade enough people from risking their health that the situation can be contained while law enforcement looks for a more permanent solution. In the meantime, synthetic weed is doing little to harm the appeal of the real thing.
While conducting a home visit on a certain Jose Andres Salaiz a probation officer in Alice, Texas spotted what he characterized as "drug paraphernalia" in plain view. As a result, he asked for and was given consent to search the Salaiz residence (being on probation Salaiz had little choice but to grant consent). That search uncovered a large suitcase which contained a number of mason jars filled with hydroponic marijuana, a large ziplock bag also filled with hydroponic pot, 4 sheets of THC, 6 vials of cannabis oil, two dozen envelopes containing THC "wax", an additional 26 containers of THC wax and nearly $3,000 in cash. The 26-year-old Salaiz was at a loss to explain how the various substances came into his being and his probation was promptly revoked, and he was taken into custody.
After Salaiz was taken into custody Sheriff Daniel Bueno had a few choice things to say about the young man he'd just arrested: "He's a dealer, and because of this type of criminal activity we have people stealing to support their habit.” But the good sheriff didn’t stop with that blunt object assessment. He went on: “Because individuals get hooked on these drugs you have criminals stealing and hardworking people become victims." It was an interesting and wonderfully retro take on the evils of marijuana, but the fact that it came from a person in authority demonstrated just how far we still have to go in educating people about the realities of cannabis.
Although Sheriff Bueno was no doubt well-intentioned and simply doing the job expected of him his assertion that people “get hooked on these drugs” raised a lot of eyebrows. But is he right? Do people get hooked on cannabis products? It’s a debate that has been raging for decades but one which, in recent years, has been pretty effectively put to bed. Even the ultra-conservative National Institute on Drug Abuse has had to basically redefine addiction in order to wedge weed in under the addictive umbrella.
But the fact remains that little if any concrete evidence has come forth conclusively proving that people "get hooked" on cannabis. And there is even less evidence to support the notion that even the most ardent stoner steals to support their favorite activity. Equating pot smokers with alcoholics, meth addicts or heroin addicts has long been a staple tactic of the right, but it's never seemed more out of step or even dangerous than it is today. Another aspect of the sheriff's argument that seemed to turn a blind eye to reality was the idea the "hardworking people become victims" because people like Salaiz sell weed. The fact is, with a population of just over 19,000 it's highly likely that many of Salaiz's customers were, in fact, the "hardworking" people of Alice.
Of particular interest to some who read the story of Mr. Salaiz's unfortunate encounter with sheriff Bueno was the fact that Salaiz was in possession of "hydroponic marijuana." Just what is that? Some new superstrain of weed imported from the foothills of the Andes? The cannabis community's response to rising sea levels? A typo? It's actually just the practice of growing weed without dirt.
Most people are under the impression a plant needs dirt to grow. When in fact all a plant needs in order to thrive is light, water, nutrients and CO2 (carbon dioxide). Depositing a seed into a bed of earth is certainly one way to deliver those things, but it's not the only way. Indeed, if the marijuana plant doesn't have to expend a lot of energy searching the soil for nutrients, it's better able to direct its efforts toward producing more robust buds and leaves. In addition, setting up a water-only, hydroponic "farm" has several other distinct advantages over soil farming.
It is unclear in the case of Mr. Salaiz whether he was also the hydroponic farmer or if he was simply a reseller of someone else's product. But in any case, his story has received considerable play and sparked interest in the subject of hydroponic weed.
Mr. Salaiz was also found to be in possession of 4 sheets of THC, 6 vials of cannabis oil, two dozen envelopes containing THC "wax" and an additional 26 containers of THC wax, meaning this was no ordinary pot merchant trafficking in nickel bags of oregano. This operation, though decided small scale, was nonetheless on the leading edge of the underground cannabis distribution industry.
While the sheriff was a bit short on details, the fact that Mr. Salaiz was charged with "manufacturing and delivery of a controlled substance" indicates that he had a hand in producing at least some of the material he was selling. And just to show how well rounded and thought out an operation the young man was running synthetic urine was also confiscated in the raid. Synthetic urine, of course, is used to pass drug tests administered by employers.
As Mr. Salaiz begins what will likely be a lengthy stay in a Texas prison it raises the question of who exactly is the victim in this case? While there is no doubt that Mr. Salaiz broke Texas law there is also no doubt that more than 2 dozen states have legalized pot for recreational or medical use or both. If Mr. Salaiz had been conducting his business in Colorado, for example, he likely would have received a slap on the wrist and a lecture about running an unlicensed business. Instead, he molders in a Texas prison and his child has become a ward of the state.
With record low unemployment, a surging stock market and wages finally pointing upwards after years of stagnation the US economy is looking good these days. One (perhaps unintended) effect of the robust economy is that some companies have decided to look the other way when it comes to testing current and potential employees for marijuana. After all, with legalization sweeping the nation and good employees harder and harder to find in a tightening job market it just doesn’t make a lot of sense to turn workers away because they might have smoked a joint at a party over the weekend.
But while some companies have indeed seen the light when it comes to testing for weed the operative word here is "some." Because these enlightened companies are still in the minority. The fact is the vast majority of companies are sticking to their policy of screening for pot and firing or disqualifying individuals who come back positive.
There are a lot of potential reasons for this. First, not every state has legalized cannabis for medical or recreational use, or both. As such companies that do business in states where pot is still illegal figure, it's only right to stick to the status quo until they have a reason to change. Second, a lot of business owners are not on board with the notion that marijuana use is basically harmless. They don't want people who are driving their expensive trucks or operating heavy machinery or interacting with customers to be buzzing. And while it's been proven, fears like that are largely baseless, they're at least understandable, to some degree.
The third reason most companies may be sticking with cannabis testing has to do with the bottom line: that is, the bottom lines of the companies that manufacture drug screening machines and conduct drug screening. Substance checking in the US is a more than $2 billion a year industry. That’s a lot of sample cups. It’s a high margin, high growth industry that has lined the pockets of a lot of company owners who don’t want anything to derail the gravy train.
These companies are constantly whispering in the ears of business owners that now is not the time to let their guard down. Their argument often uses the old "gateway" approach. That is, they suggest that if business owners let up on screening for weed, they'll start questioning the logic of checking for other things. Eventually, the wheels will come off the testing wagon and they'll wind up with a group of employees who look like refugees from the set of "The Walking Dead."
But it's not just employers and screening companies who are keen to continue checking people for marijuana use. There is an equal number of companies on the other side of the fence that also have a stake in seeing testing continue.
They are the companies that produce and sell items and kits that allegedly help individuals get around drug panels. They manufacture the artificial urine that is winding up in more and more sample cups worldwide. They manufacture the artificial penises guys use to deliver that fake pee when someone is in the room with them. They own the websites that sell products like these. And they own the head shops that do the same. Printing companies that print the boxes for these products, shippers and everyone else in the supply and delivery chain related to the get-around-your-drug-test business stand to lose if companies stop screening for weed.
While the number of companies no longer checking for weed is still small, it's likely to grow as long as the economy continues to churn along and demand for workers remains high. And the fact is that while it's unlikely a company's decision to stop screening for weed will have little effect on its desire to look for opiates or other drugs the decision to stop screening for weed does represent a kind of gateway. In this case, however, it's not a gateway to a world of munchy-crazed zombies, but rather a gateway to a more tolerant society. One that recognizes there is a difference between an employee stumbling into work still reeking of alcohol from the previous night's party and someone coming to work in fine shape after sharing a joint with their buds the night before. It's the kind of gateway that's worth passing through.
In addition to the benefits, companies are likely to enjoy if they stop trying to group recreational pot users with crack addicts there is also the case of the hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions of Americans who gain some therapeutic benefits from cannabis. People with epilepsy, glaucoma, cancer, chronic pain, Crohn's disease, arthritis and more all use cannabis to help them deal with the symptoms of their illness. Lumping these people in with heroin users and meth addicts is both grossly unfair and undermines the legitimate arguments (and there are some) that companies use to justify looking for truly dangerous substances.
The fact is there should have been some sort of public debate over what type of substances a company could and should screen for before the practice of looking for drugs was introduced. But there wasn't. Drug screening was simply imposed on the labor market without comment and has crept into every corner of the business world like sociological kudzu. As a result, a person who shares a doobie with his friends on Saturday night is now considered to be essentially the same as someone who is stealing products from the warehouse and selling them to finance his meth addiction. It's insane.
At the end of the day, workers and potential workers should be judged on their ability to do the job they're being hired to do.
And while no one is arguing that train conductors and airline pilots should not be checked for most drugs firing your cashier because he or she took a few hits off a bong over the weekend is no one's definition of reasonable or fair.
Drug tests are performed every day throughout America and the rest of the world, for various reasons. Certain jobs require candidates to take a pre-employment screening as part of the application process, and some employers carry out random tests over the course of your employment. If you are on probation, you may be required to take urinalyses, and police often carry out roadside check to ensure that drivers are not under the influence of any substances. Athletes are also subject to random substance screening, to ensure that they do not have an unfair advantage as a result of performance-enhancing substances. In most cases, a high percentage of subjects pass the test, compared to those who fail; however failures do occur. Depending on the situation, the consequences vary dramatically. Read on to find out what happens when you fail a urinalysis.
Pre-employment drug screenings occur in many jobs because if an employee is under the influence of substances, it can affect the safety of the workplace for everybody. If asked by a potential employer to take a test, then you are required to take and pass the test. If you fail the test and disagree with the result, you may be able to be re-tested. If you believe that you have failed because of prescribed medication that you take, you will be required to prove this and prove that you took the proper dosage. The chances are that you probably will not get the job; however, exceptions can occur. If you refuse to take the test, this is generally treated the same as failing.
The results do not go onto any public record that could be seen by future employers or anyone else, apart from one exception. Department of Transport (DOT) employers can find out about any previous DOT tests that you have failed, and you are required to disclose any prior substance screenings results to them when applying. Your test results will also not be passed on to any authorities, and there will be no legal consequences for failing a pre-employment screening.
Many companies carry out periodical or random checks of their employees. This may occur at work, or you might be sent to a lab. Unfortunately, if you fail, you will most likely lose your job. However, this isn't always the case – if you're a good employee, you may be able to ask for a second chance, but you will have to ensure that you don't fail any future screenings. Like with pre-employment checks, the results will not be shared with anybody else, except for if you work in the DOT. However, future employers are likely to ask your reason for leaving the position, and the chances are that the company will not provide a good reference for you.
There will also be no legal repercussions; however, there is a high chance that being fired for failing a drug test will mean that you cannot claim unemployment benefits, but this varies from state to state, so it is worth checking.
If you are required to take checks as part of the terms of your probation, the consequences of failure can be much more severe than those of failing an employment screening, and they also vary in different cases. The penalty may depend on several factors including the offense that put you on probation in the first place, the laws of your state, and how lenient your probation officer is.
The worst case scenario is that you have to go to jail, and your probation could also be revoked, meaning that you will serve your full sentence in prison. You could also be charged with an additional crime. Alternatively, you may have your probation time extended, be ordered to complete community service, ordered to go to rehab or ordered to pay a fine. You may also be subject to more frequent checks for the duration of your probation. The test result will go on your record, so if you fail a second time, then the punishment may be much harsher. Not turning up for testings will also have severe consequences.
If a police officer has reason to believe that you may be driving under the influence of substances, you must complete a urinalysis. There are various ways of administering these tests including urine samples, blood samples, breath tests and swabbing saliva. They may also carry out other roadside tests such as checking your pupils for size, condition, and reaction to light. If you are taking any prescribed medication that may have affected your result, you are required to prove this. If you are found to have been driving under the influence of substances, penalties can vary. The chances are that you will receive a driving ban and a criminal record. You may also have to go to jail or pay a fine.
Athletes are subject to random screenings to check that they are not taking any performance-enhancing substances, in an effort to ensure fair competition. It should be noted that in general, less than 2% of athletes fail these tests. Tests are administered in the form of blood samples or urine samples and then tested in a laboratory.
Sanctions vary in each situation; however, the athlete may be suspended from competing for a period of time, and any win while under the influence will most likely be null, with any medals or prizes returned. Their record, results, and standing in competitions may also be voided. In the most extreme cases, athletes may be banned from competing at a professional level for the rest of their lives. Refusing to complete a urinalysis, penalties similar to those of a failed test will apply.
The use of performance-enhancing drugs is all too common amongst athletes, whose desire to win leads them to ignore the severe side effects of these substances. There are many types of performance-enhancing drugs available, and they come in different forms such as pills or ointments. We see tests occurring in various sports, from Olympic athletes to major league baseball players. The different types available produce different benefits for the athlete (along with different risks), so the chemicals used will be determined by the desired outcome. In this article, we’ll take a look at how some of the most common performance-enhancing substances work.
Anabolic steroids are often used by various athletes, including those involved in track and field, weightlifting and American football, to increase muscle strength and power. They are substances which resemble testosterone and other male hormones, which can be injected or taken as a pill. Anabolic steroids work by stimulating the receptor molecules in the bones and muscles to activate specific genes to produce new protein. Research suggests that the effectiveness of anabolic steroids is increased by heavy resistance training, as this increases the number of unbound receptor cells that the drug can stimulate.
Athletes who have used these substances reported being able to train harder and recover more quickly, which may be because anabolic steroids block the effects of hormones such as cortisol which is involved in the breakdown of tissues during and after exercise. Unfortunately for the athletes, the results reverse when they stop taking the chemicals, and they also come with risky side effects such as liver damage and depression.
Beta-2 adrenergic agonists refers to a collection of drugs including clenbuterol, terbutaline, salbutamol, fenoterol, and bambuterol. They are often used to treat asthma, as when inhaled they relax the muscles surrounding the lungs, causing dilation of the vessels and permitting more air to enter the lungs. However, when injected into the bloodstream or taken orally, the substances can build muscle mass and reduce body fat. They do this by limiting protein breakdown in the muscles. Therefore, beta-2 adrenergic agonists are commonly used amongst athletes involved in strength and endurance.
They are consequently banned amongst athletes except for in an inhaler form for the treatment of asthma. While they assist with increasing muscle mass, the substances come with several adverse side effects including nausea, headaches, dizziness, muscle cramps and rapid heartbeats.
Human growth hormone (HGH) occurs naturally in the body and is produced by the pituitary gland. It helps with cell reproduction and promotes physical growth by stimulating the liver and other tissues to make protein. While HGH is essential for healthy development, excessive levels increase muscle mass by stimulating protein synthesis, strengthen bones by encouraging bone growth, and reduce body fat by stimulating the breakdown of fat cells. It is therefore used by athletes to increase lean body mass, increase speed and endurance, and aid swift recovery from muscle fatigue or injury.
While the effectiveness of HGH on improving athletic performance has not been proven, it has been banned amongst athletes since the early 1990s; however many athletes have chosen to use it regardless as it is difficult to detect, and has no significant side effects if it is properly dosed.
The term stimulant refers to various drugs that impact the central nervous system. They have been commonly used amongst athletes to reduce tiredness and fatigue and increase endurance, alertness, competitiveness, and aggressiveness. They work by speeding up areas of the brain and body, which in turn increases the heart rate, blood pressure, metabolism and body temperature. The most used stimulants amongst athletes are amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, and methylphenidate. They can be taken by snorting, injecting or as a pill, depending on the drug, and effects vary between each one; however, the general effect is the same. Although nicotine and caffeine are also classed as stimulants, they are not banned; however, they are monitored to detect any possible misuse. Side effects vary between each substance; cocaine, for example, can lead to panic attacks, paranoia, addiction, and even heart attacks in extreme cases. Amphetamines can damage the liver, kidneys and cardiovascular system, and also affect areas of the brain involved in memory and emotion.
Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone, which is secreted by the cells in the pancreas. High blood sugar levels trigger the release of insulin to reduce the body’s glucose levels and prevent the liver from releasing more. Insulin is usually prescribed to treat Type 1 diabetes; however, it has been used by athletes in an attempt to increase muscle mass and definition. The hormone plays a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Therefore, athletes use it under the belief that it will stimulate protein synthesis and store higher amounts of carbohydrates and amino acids in the muscles.
It is often used alongside other performance-enhancing substances such as anabolic steroid and human growth hormone. Not only is insulin use banned for athletes, but can also cause low blood sugar which in turn may lead to shaking, nausea, weakness, shortness of breath, drowsiness, brain damage, coma, or even death.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is an example of a protein hormone which is used by athletes to enhance their performance. It is a naturally occurring hormone which is secreted by the kidneys in response to low oxygen conditions. EPO stimulates the bone marrow stem cells to produce new red blood cells, to deliver more oxygen to the kidneys. Runners, cyclists, and other endurance athletes have been known to use EPO to increase their oxygen supply by up to 7-10%, as EPO is challenging to detect. However, the increased density of red blood cells, caused by EPO, can cause the blood to thicken.
This thickened blood does not flow through the blood vessels as smoothly, so the heart has to work harder to pump it, which puts the athlete at risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Sports history holds many tales of tremendous athletic achievement which will never be forgotten. However, amongst the stories of great sporting legends, are a number of drug scandals which rocked the world of sports, and are equally as famous as the sporting events themselves. Many of these involve performance-enhancing drugs used by players to get ahead, while others revolve around drug abuse of substances such as cocaine, which is also considered a performance enhancer. In either case, the consequences can prove to be disastrous with idolized sporting legends being stripped of their titles, disqualified, sent to rehab or prison, and in some cases dying from overdose. Unfortunately, these much-loved athletes will be remembered as much for their scandals as for their talent and accomplishments. Read on for the six biggest drug scandals ever in sports history.
American sprinter Tyson Gay is tied for the title of the second fastest man alive, after Usain Bolt. Gay competes in 100 and 200-meter sprints, with a 100m personal best of 9.69 seconds. He posted the second-fastest time for the 100-meter dash in the 2009 Shanghai Golden Grand Prix and won a silver medal at the 2012 London summer Olympics.
However, in 2013, he tested positive for an anabolic steroid, which is a banned substance. He was subsequently stripped of his silver medals and banned from the sport for two years. He had his punishment halved to just one year after providing the US Anti-Doping Agency with substantial assistance during their investigation. He then came back to win the Prefontaine Classic event in Oregon; however, the scar on his reputation will never go away, and fans will always question the legitimacy of his wins.
American cyclist Lance Armstrong won the Tour De France seven years straight from 1999 to 2005 and won a bronze medal in the 2000 summer Olympics in the men’s individual time trial. This is despite being diagnosed with cancer in 1996, aged 25, and making a miraculous recovery. He constantly battled with allegations of using performance-enhancing drugs, which he persistently denied, even under oath. In January 2013, after years of denial, Armstrong admitted to using performance-enhancing drugs in an interview with Oprah Winfrey, which has now become famous.
As a result, many sponsors dropped him, losing him $75 million in endorsements. During the interview, he told Oprah Winfrey that he feels ashamed. Unfortunately, his exceptional athletic achievement and miraculous recovery from cancer will always be overshadowed by his scandal, and this is what he will be remembered for.
Track and field star Marion Jones made headlines when she won five medals, three of which were gold, at the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics. However, her reputation went severely downhill after she was linked to the 2002 BALCO (Bay Area Laboratory Co-operative) scandal, in which the US Federal Government investigated the laboratory and discovered that they were supplying banned substances to athletes.
In 2007, Jones admitted to using steroids over the course of her career, and she was consequently stripped of her Olympic medals. Furthermore, she was sentenced to six months in prison for lying under oath about her use of performance-enhancing drugs.
Many sports fans would argue that there was a point when Deigo Maradona was the greatest soccer player in the world. One thing he will be remembered for is shooting the most controversial goal in world cup history. Unfortunately, he will also be remembered for his cocaine addiction. As the drug qualifies as a stimulant, it interfered with his ability to play, causing him to fail a substance test in 1991. Consequently, he was banned from playing for 15 months and became an outcast in South America, as well as experiencing severe health issues as a result of his addiction. Maradona still qualified for the Argentinean team for the 1994 world cup; however, a drugs test showed that he was on ephedrine and he was kicked out.
This became his last international tournament. His reputation was tarnished as fans learned that some of his most celebrated goals occurred whilst under the influence of cocaine, and his career plummeted to the point of no return.
Prior to their cocaine scandal, the Pittsburgh Pirates were doing well; in 1979, they won the World Series. However, in 1986 they became the subject of one of baseball’s largest scandals. Several players were called before a grand jury for charges of cocaine distribution, and possession with intent to distribute. 20 were found guilty, and 11 were officially suspended from playing baseball; however, it was then decided that they could continue playing on three conditions: they had to donate a percentage of their base salaries to drug abuse programs, submit to random testing and complete drug-related community service.
The dealers who were selling to the players received far greater punishments than the players themselves. Many people believe that this incident began the drug culture in sports, and was the precedent to all future scandals. It is also widely considered that the scandal shaped how incidents like this would be treated in the future.
For a number of years, Alex Rodriguez was the number one player in major league baseball. However, in 1991 he admitted to using performance-enhancing substances earlier on in his career, before going on to lead the New York Yankees to victory later on in that season. In 2013 he was involved in the Biogenesis scandal – regarded by many as the biggest scandal in baseball history. As a result, he was suspended for 211 games.
He appealed the suspension and continued playing for the Yankees in the meantime, but he lost his appeal and missed the entire 2014 season. He returned to baseball in 2015; however many sports fans could no longer view him in the same way after learning about his use of performance-enhancing drugs.
Most people are under the impression that LSD dropped off the cultural radar some 50 years ago but the fact is Lysergic Acid Diethylamide has been with us the whole time. Sure it's had its ups and downs as far as popularity goes, but it's never been entirely out of the picture when it comes to those with a taste for recreational drugs. In the past decade or so, a new generation has come of age LSD has seen a resurgence of sorts and today is back to being the hallucinogenic of choice for young people from Saint Petersburg to San Francisco.
LSD has been around since the late 1930s when it was first synthesized from the fungus "ergot." In the 50-odd years since it came to prominence as the Scotch of the so-called counterculture, it has accumulated a slew of names including "acid", "blotter", "dots", "Lucy", "window pane", "purple microdot", "tab", "heavenly blue", "purple heart" and "zen". LSD was first sold commercially in Europe in 1947 under the name Delysid, but it's one of the few drugs to achieve widespread awareness and use that has never been available by prescription at the local pharmacy in the US. It was, almost from the very start, a largely experimental substance here and its dispensing was very tightly controlled.
While you couldn't purchase it at the local store you could, until 1966, purchase the formula for creating LSD from the US patent office and synthesize the substance yourself, which many did. In 1967 however that privilege was revoked and in 1970 it was officially classified as a Schedule I substance by the US government meaning that, in the eyes of the Feds, LSD has "a high potential for abuse" and "no currently accepted medical use." The effects of LSD can vary widely from person to person. Some will experience extraordinary hallucinations; others simply feel a sense of euphoria while still others may sink into a pit of despair. Some will be completely unaffected.
Psilocybin mushrooms are another of those drugs you could never buy at the pharmacy, but unlike LSD they've been known and used by humans for thousands of years. Also known as "shrooms," "magic mushrooms" or just simply "mush" mushrooms produce effects very similar to LSD including hallucinations, a sense of euphoria and an altered sense of time. Shrooms typically have a nasty taste and are often coated in chocolate or brewed in tea to make them more palatable. Magic mushroom use is not as common as it once was but it still pops up here and there.
Both LSD and mushrooms have short half-lives which means they'll often clear your system within a day of the time you come down. But you can't bet the farm on that because the actual amount of time it takes to eliminate these drugs will depend in large part on your metabolism, size, age, overall health and more. In truth, it could be eliminated in one day, or it might take a week. In your parents (or maybe grandparent's) day there were a lot of wacky myths circulating about LSD, including one that warned trace amounts would remain in your nervous system for the rest of your life. Fortunately, those turned out not to be true. Although there have certainly been cases of negative long-term consequences from the abuse of these drugs including persistent psychosis, paranoia, visual disturbances, disorganized thoughts and more.
While the standard 5-panel drug test doesn't bother looking for LSD or mushrooms more specialized tests known as Abuscreen and EMIT do. Most companies will not bother ordering the more sophisticated tests however for a couple of reasons. Namely, they're expensive, and few companies think their employees are dropping acid. In some cases, if an employer feels hallucinogens might be in play they'll order one of the more thorough Abuscreen or EMIT tests, often without providing prior warning to the employee being tested.
With some drugs, you can go to your employer, tell them you've been prescribed XYZ by your doctor and take your test without worry. Not with acid or shrooms. If you're facing a urinalysis only a few days after taking LSD or mushrooms, you'll need a way to ensure the urine sample you submit is as clean and clear as you are. That's where synthetic urine comes in. The ones today such as Quick Fix 6.2 are virtual carbon copies of human pee and should allow you to pass even the most rigorous drug test.
Quick Fix is readily available through a variety of online resellers who will ship it to you overnight so it will be there in plenty of time for your test. The most important things to remember when purchasing and submitting a fake sample are:
If you’ve recently partaken of LSD or mushrooms and are now facing a drug test, products like Quick Fix 6.2 is a proven way out. Don’t waste time trying to flush your system or asking your buddy for a urine sample that may itself be compromised. Use Quick Fix and relax.
You’ve probably noticed that cannabis-infused products are becoming more common on the Internet. Gummies, chocolate bars, special teas, drops, capsules, vaping liquids, lotions, salves, and the list goes on. It seems like every day a new company opens its virtual doors with a new angle or innovation.
We live in a fascinating time with limitless choices, and though it can be overwhelming, we as consumers, have a distinct advantage. If we don’t like the price and selection that a company offers, we can take our business elsewhere.
Because of that, companies selling CBD and hemp products online are working harder than ever to get your attention and win your business. Their efforts usually result in massive discounts. The smart companies are sweetening the deal with free product samples and trials.
In this article, we share 30 places to get free cannabis products.
Get a free WolfShot energy drink laced with hemp and pomegranate/cherry flavoring. This drink is designed to provide you with a more natural source of energy than typical drinks on the market. Plus, the infusion of hemp juice helps aid in digestion and provides additional antioxidants. The product description says a serving of the beverage contains more caffeine than a cup of coffee, but without the crash.
The approximate value of this shot is about $2.50. In exchange for the sample, the company requests that you take a picture of yourself with the product and write a review about how the drink made you feel.
This company is offering a sample gift basket of CDB oil, gummies, pills, and wax. All you have to do is follow their Facebook page and share it (hopefully you’ve got nonjudgmental friends and an understanding employer), then fill out a short form with your contact information. They’ll alert you when the sample is available for shipment.
Get a free 7-day sample of CBD oil. We can’t speak to the efficacy of this particular brand, but they’ve got hundreds of five-star reviews, so they must be doing something right. Keep in mind that you will have to pay for shipping. The cost will vary depending on your location, but on average, expect to shell out $9.95.
This UK company is offering free packs of cannabis seeds. Choose from six different strains, including Kandy Kush and Buddha’s Sister. Each package contains five seeds. Like Healthy Hemp Oil, there’s a shipping fee involved, but there’s an interesting twist. They only accept bitcoin.
Claim up to two free samples a day from this site! Choose from CBD oils, pills, pastes and balms. Overall there are 13 varieties to try. There is a shipping fee involved, but the product itself is free!
Try a delicious sample of Kiva, a “triple-strength” vanilla chai milk chocolate square. The company that offers this product for free (they hope you’ll buy lots more after you try it) describes it like “a warm blanket in a chocolate bar.”
Sounds good in theory, but if you dissect that claim, it makes no sense. First of all, how can you put a blanket inside of a chocolate bar? And second, why would you want to?
We think the people who wrote the product description may have had too much Kiva bars. And now, we’re dying to get our hands on some.
If you claimed your free seeds from Seeds4free.com, you’re probably going to want to know how to grow them! Luckily, there’s a free book available for download called “Marijuana Grow Bible.” Written by Robert Bergman, founder of ilovegrowingmarijuana.com, this guide contains knowledge collected over the course of 30 years.
New visitors can claim a free sample of one of four strains: PK+OG, Juicy Fruit, Earth Bubba or Chunky Monkey. The sample contains one gram.
Bookmark this page and keep checking back. They’re often out of stock of free samples, but when they are giving them away, expect a generous sample of a CBD oil or serum.
Want to try out your green thumb and make a handsome profit with zero risk? Head on over to BC Seeds, scroll toward the bottom of the page and click on their offer for their top-selling strain of five feminized seeds. They say that the product sells for $550 an ounce, so you’ve got nothing to lose and so much to potentially gain.
If you’re in the UK, this site is for you. Create an account and claim your free seeds. Plus, you get a free seed every time you order.
For native California seeds at an irresistible price (free!), The Strainbank is our favorite spot. You get a sample pack of five OG Kush seeds for a nominal shipping fee.
If you’re a DIYer, you may want to try your hand at making your own edibles. The Official High Times Cannabis Cookbook is the perfect guide for perfecting your recipes. You want to make sure you use just the right amount of herbal assistance and also make something that’s a delight to devour. This book helps make that happen for you!
This e-book contains 151 pages of pure deliciousness.
If you’re in Canada, you could be a good citizen and help with the mission of overgrowing Canada with marijuana plants. Hilarious, right?
The mission of these folks is to blatantly grow plants in public areas, including in front of police stations, City Hall, and other high-profile places. They provide a ton of help and guidance along the way to ensure your plants’ success. For example, they recommend letting your plant grow to be a few inches tall before transporting it to give it the best chance of survival and growth.
This is a non-profit organization that helps connect the needy and underprivileged with free pot. To see if you qualify, fill out a form to apply for assistance, though they may direct you somewhere for a consultation rather than sending you a free stash. Still, it’s worth a shot.
If you’re a veteran, you may be eligible for free pot. Hero Grown has given away more than $2 million in cannabis to war heroes, helping them with PTSD and other side effects of war. The organization says it’s working to steer veterans away from sleeping pills, opiates, painkillers, and alcohol. Their mission is to help veterans cope with the aftermath of their experiences in a safe and natural way.
In exchange for your email address, Dank City will enter you into giveaways and provide other chances to get free stuff. They’ll also send any relevant promo codes, which could range from a percentage off a product to offers for free samples.
Get a free gram of a premium strain. The catch is that you have to purchase something from their store, but it could be as insignificant as a dollar pack of rolling papers. Joke’s on them, right?
Gold Labs CBD is giving away 250 free samples every day. We actually think it’s limitless, but we can’t say for sure. In exchange for giving them your contact info, you get a one-ounce bottle of this supplement. There’s no THC, so no side effects. It’s 100% natural and has gotten excellent reviews from other people who have claimed the sample.
While a lot of companies charge for shipping, Feronia Botanicals will send one product sample completely free. If you want two, they ask that you pay a $5 shipping fee. Choose from a CBD salve or lotion.
This company has the most adorable packaging, so we’re happy to become repeat customers just for the artistic bottles and jars.
This company does monthly giveaways of 500 samples on Reddit. They give away 7-day supplies of CBD oil in exchange for prospects answering a 10-question survey. It’s easy and takes only a few minutes.
You can visit their home page at https://panacealifelabs.com or keep checking back on Reddit to be the first to know when the giveaway is live again: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/.
If you live in an area where recreational marijuana is legal, reach out to your local dispensaries to inquire about demo days where you can sample free product. Urban Leaf in California hosts demo days on a regular basis where you can try a wide array of their stock.
If you’d like a single point of reference containing every relevant piece of knowledge you could hope to acquire about growing the most potent weed plants possible, check out the free Cannabis Growing Guide.
It’s a simple and easy-to-navigate table of contents; no download or opt-in required!
If you live in a climate where you need to grow your marijuana inside, or maybe you’re in a spot where you can’t farm outside legally (wink, wink), then Denver Party Ride’s indoor growing guide will be a lifesaver. They focus on how to seed and cultivate cheaply and easily, which is also a huge plus!
Just when you thought that subscription boxes had saturated every possible niche, they’re now in the marijuana industry. However, not all cannabis subscription boxes are awesome, so we’re recommending Stashbox. You don’t even have to pay anything to get the goods.
You can sign up for their mailing list to get freebies and be entered into giveaways. If you’re feeling adventurous, you can get started with a subscription box for $1. Sounds like almost as much fun as a dollar scratcher ticket!
This site sells sweet and savory edibles, along with tinctures and balms. They use organic, non-GMO, gluten-free and vegan ingredients. The red velvet brownie is a favorite, but it comes with a high potency warning.
The company provides free samples, but they do verify your information first.
Get as much free product as you can handle as a CBD Infusionz brand ambassador. As long as you have a decent social media following, you can get free edibles, capsules, salves and CBD MCT Oil.
You can even get paid if you sign up for their affiliate program. Their commission is a very generous 20%.
Speaking of getting free stuff by being a brand ambassador, Canabidol is another company that offers this amazing opportunity. If you get accepted by CBD Infusionz, you’ll probably qualify for Canabidol, too. The advantage of doing both is that they sell different products, so there shouldn’t be a conflict of interest. And, of course, you get double the goods.
By repping Canabidol, you can get free capsules, vape liquid, cacao tabs, and concentrated extracts.
Get free seeds from Humboldt, no strings attached. Seedsman is offering site visitors a Green Crack fern worth around $10, absolutely free. Another plus: they provide stealth packaging and shipping is available worldwide.
Here’s another free sample bottle of CBD oil to try. Again, it’s a one-ounce bottle, so it’s a generous enough supply to be of use. Maybe even long enough to get results! This particular formula is purported to relieve anxiety, reduce blood sugar levels and promote bone growth.
Give it a try and let us know what you think!
Keep in mind as you visit these sites that many of them have age and location restrictions. You’ll have to confirm that you’re over a certain age, usually somewhere between 18 and 21, and as you claim your free products, make sure you live in an area where the company can legally ship.
Also, before claiming any offers, double check to see if there’s an automatic subscription model associated with a free product. If so, don’t forget to cancel the subscription before your next billing cycle!